General Conditions


Has a prevalence of 0.9 cases per 1000 hospital admissions in developed countries. Children who are born prematurely and /or have profound immobility, are at higher risk of stones. Metabolic abnormalities are the main reason for stone formation. 20 % of people who develop a renal stone do so before the age of 20 years. Boys are affected twice as frequently as girls and at a younger age.

Prenatal Urology

Fetal hydronephrosis is the most common anomaly detected on antenatal ultrasound examination, affecting 1–5% of pregnancies. The most common pathological processes include ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), followed by posterior urethral valves, ureteral obstruction. Εarly postnatal evaluation of children with a history of any degree of PNH is mandatory.

Disorders of sexual development (DSD)

Sex assignment as either male or female is instantaneous at birth for the vast majority of infants. It has been estimated that genital anomalies occur in about one in 4500 births. Female pseudo-hermaphroditism due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most common cause of ambiguous genitalia in newborns.

Obstructive uropathies

Hydronephrosis is a condition that can occur in the womb, where a baby’s kidneys fill up with urine and become larger. This can happen for various reasons. A blockage, which can occur between the kidney and the ureter (pelviureteric junction or PUJ), between the bladder and the ureter (vesicoureteric junction or VUJ) or in the urethra (posterior urethral valve). About 1 in every 300 people has one kidney affected by hydronephrosis. About 1 in every 600 people have both kidneys affected by hydronephrosis.

Urinary tract infections

UTI is believed to be one of the most common bacterial infections seen by clinicians who treat paediatric patients. It may be difficult to recognize UTI in children because the presenting symptoms and signs are non-specific, particularly in infants and children under 3 years. It has been estimated that 3% of prepubertal girls and 1% of prepubertal boys are diagnosed with UTIs. Recent estimates suggest up to 8% of girls are affected by UTI. UTI is more prevalent among boys than girls younger than 1 year of age.


Wilms tumour is the second most common intra-abdominal malignancy after neuroblastoma. The introduction of radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved survival rates. However, with modern multimodal therapy long-term survival rates of 90% are achievable. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the third most common solid malignancy of childhood. RMS can occur with a bimodal frequency with the early peak between 2-5 years and the late peak between 15-19 years of age.

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