Specific Conditions


“Is a descriptive term for a ureters that is wide and sometimes very tortuous.” It is not a diagnosis. Megaureter and Vesicoureteric reflux may coexist.

Vesicoureteric Reflux

Vesicoureteric Reflux (VUR) results from the lack of normal valve-like mechanism of the vesicoureteric orifice.

Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction (UPJ) represents the leading cause of dilatation of the urinary tract. UPJ can result from anatomic anomalies or abnormal peristalsis.

Testicular Torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle rotates on the spermatic cord, which provides blood flow to the testicle. This rotation cuts off the flow of blood and causes sudden, often severe pain and swelling. Testicular torsion is most common in males under 25, but it can occur at any age, including in newborns and infants.

Posterior Urethral Valves

Posterior Urethral Valves consist of abnormal mucosal folds between the urethral wall and the distal end of the verumontanum.

Meatal Stenosis

Ιs the most common complication of circumcision. After circumcision, a child who is not toilet trained persistently exposes the meatus to urine, resulting in inflammation (ammoniacal dermatitis) and mechanical trauma as the meatus rubs against a wet diaper.


Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly, an abnormality of the urethra, which affects about one in 300 boys at birth. In this condition, the opening of urethra (the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body) is on the underside of the penis instead of at the end. The urethral opening may still be on the glans, or head of the penis, or it may be further down the shaft.

Hemorrhagic Cystitis

In pediatric oncology patients, hemorrhagic cystitis can be a life-threatening complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias

Bladder exstrophy means literally the eversion or turning inside-out of the bladder. The incidence is 1 in 300000 live births, with a male to female ratio 3:1. Male epispadias is a deformity in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis instead of at its tip (1/100000). Female epispadias is a deformity in which the urethral opening extends to the clitoris, which is bifid (1/400000).

Nocturnal enuresis

The term “nocturnal enuresis” should, according to the International Children’s Continence Society (ICCS) standardization, be limited to conditions in which the wetness occurs during the night while the child is asleep and when no daytime symptoms are present.

Voiding Dysfunction

Conditions and lower urinary tract symptoms which includes a firm distinction between daytime and night-time wetness and between bladder reservoir problems and voiding problems.


About 4–5% of males have undescended testes at birth, but more than half of these will continue to descend in the first12 weeks postnatally. By 3 months post-term, the incidence of congenital cryptorchidism is 1–2%.


Phimosis is a pathological narrowing of the opening of the prepuce, preventing it from being drawn back over the glans penis.

Antenatal Hydronephrosis

The incidence of prenatally diagnosed uropathies reported from European centers averages around 1/500 pregnancies. Approximately 50% of all children with a prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis will have a pelviureteric junction obstruction.

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